Τετάρτη, 19 Αυγούστου 2015

Jersey Boys


Jersey Boys είναι ο τίτλος ενός μιούζικαλ που είδα στη Νέα Υόρκη όταν την επισκέφθηκα το 2010 (Δείτε περισσότερα για αυτό το ταξίδι εδώ).

 


Η παράσταση παίζεται ανελλιπώς από το 2005 όταν πρωτοανέβηκε στο Broadway και έχει κερδίσει 4 Tony Awards το 2006 και το Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Musical το 2009.Η μουσική είναι του Bob Gaudio, οι στίχοι του Bob Crewe, ενώ βασίζεται στο βιβλίο των Marshall Brickman και Rick Elice. Παρουσιάζεται με ένα documentary-style format και αναφέρεται στην ιστορία του συγκροτήματος της δεκαετίας του 60  The Four Seasons. Το μιούζικαλ χωρίζεται σε τέσσερις «εποχές», στην κάθε μία από τις οποίες το ρόλο του αφηγητή παίζει και άλλο μέλος του συγκροτήματος.

Οι κριτικοί λάτρεψαν την παράσταση αλλά και ο κόσμος την αγάπησε από την πρώτη στιγμή. Δείτε για παράδειγμα τι έγραφε ο Ben Brantley από τους The New York Times
"THE CROWD GOES WILD. I'm talking about the real, mostly middle-aged crowd at the August Wilson Theater, who seem to have forgotten what year it is or how old they are or, most important, that John Lloyd Young is not Frankie Valli. And everything that has led up to that curtain call feels, for just a second, as real and vivid as the sting of your hands clapping together." 

Το 2014 ο  Clint Eastwood  με το διπλό ρόλο του παραγωγού και του σκηνοθέτη σκηνοθέτησε την ομώνυμη ταινία που βασίστηκε στο μιούζικαλ Jersey Boys. Το φιλμ κυκλοφόρησε στις ΗΠΑ στις 20 Ιουνίου του 2014 αλλά δεν είχε την ανάλογη με το θεατρικό μιούζικαλ απήχηση στο κοινό. Προσωπικά, η ταινία μου άρεσε αρκετά αλλά το γεγονός ότι προσπαθούσε να διατηρήσει τη δομή και γενικότερα την αίσθηση της θεατρικής παράστασης νομίζω ότι τελικά της βγήκε σε κακό. Φυσικά, το μεγάλο ατού τόσο της παράστασης όσο και της ταινίας είναι τα υπέροχα τραγούδια των Four Seasons που θα ακούσετε στην ταινία να τραγουδούν οι πρωταγωνιστές. Συγκεκριμένα, στην ταινία ακούγονται τα παρακάτω τραγούδια:
Δείτε το trailer της ταινίας

και εδώ πάρτε μια γεύση από την παράσταση

Δευτέρα, 17 Αυγούστου 2015

Η ιστορία του ροκ ...

... από τη γέννηση του (και λίγο πιο πριν).

 

1922

“My Man Rocks Me (with One Steady Roll).” Recorded by vaudeville Blues singerTrixie Smith, it’s probably the first record to conjoin “rock” and “roll.” It’s not Rock ‘n’ Roll, but makes it clear that Rock ‘n’ Roll is a euphemism for sex.

1925

Bill Haley born. Highland Park, Detroit, Michigan.

1926

Chuck Berry born. Charles Edward Berry, St. Louis, Missouri.

1928

Fats Domino born. Antoine Domino, New Orleans, Louisiana.

1931

The electric guitarAdolph Rickenbacker and steel guitarist George Beauchampfigure out how to translate the strings’ vibration into an electrical current. Hawaiian guitarists are early adopters.

1932

Carl Perkins born. Tiptonville, Tennessee.

1932

Little Richard born. Richard Penniman, Macon, Georgia.

1935

Elvis Presley born. Tupelo, Mississippi.

1935

Jerry Lee Lewis born. Ferriday, Louisiana.

1935

Electric bass patented. Inventor, Paul Tutmarc, makes models to be played vertically and horizontally, but the instrument doesn’t catch on until Fenderintroduces its first model in 1951.

1936

Roy Orbison born. Vernon, Texas.

1936

Buddy Holly born. Charles Hardin Holley, Lubbock, Texas.

1938

Record Rendezvous opens in Cleveland. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, store owner Leo Mintz sees young African Americans and young white kids are listening to Rhythm ‘n’ Blues, and reportedly adopts the phrase “Rock ‘n’ Roll” to escape the stigma of “Rhythm ‘n’ Blues” when he sponsors dee-jay Alan Freed on WJW. Later, Mintz co-produces Freed’s Moondog Coronation Balls.

1938

First recording with an electric hollow-body guitar. Jazz guitarists George Barnesand Eddie Durham make the first electric guitar recordings a few days apart.

1939

First electric Blues guitar solo: Floyd Smith records “Floyd’s Guitar Blues” withAndy Kirk’s “Clouds of Joy.” Chuck Berry later records it as “Blues for Hawaiians.”

1939

First Hillbilly Boogie record. Johnny Barfield’s “Boogie Woogie.”

1940

John Lennon born. Liverpool, England.

1940

Ringo Starr born. Richard Starkey, Liverpool, England.

1940

Les Paul develops a solid-body electric guitar. To this point, all electric models have been hollow-bodied.

1941

Bob Dylan born. Robert Zimmerman, Hibbing, Minnesota.

1942

Paul McCartney born. Liverpool, England.

1942

Cow Cow Boogie.” A prophetic blend of JazzBoogie WoogieHillbilly, and Pop,Ella Mae Morse’s record sells over one million copies for newly launched Capitol Records.

1943

George Harrison born. Liverpool, England.

1943

Mick Jagger born. Dartford, England.

1943

Keith Richards born. Dartford, England.

1944

Billboard magazine launches its first Country chart. Country music is called Folk(Even when Elvis Presley’s second LP is released in October 1956, the liner notes say, “Of commercial folk music, Presley is perhaps the most original singer sinceJimmie Rodgers.”)

1945

Rhythm & Blues reaches the nation from Nashville. At a time when most music on radio is still “live,” disc jockey Gene Nobles begins all-night broadcasting on Nashville’s WLAC. Some students bring some R&B records to him. They elicit so much mail, he continues. The following year, Ernie Young starts Ernie’s Record Mart in Nashville to sell records on Nobles’ show. Two years later, Randy Wood in nearby Gallatin, Tennessee begins advertising on Nobles’ show and ships packages of R&B records throughout the nation from Randy’s Record Shop. Gene NoblesRandy Wood, Ernie Young, WLAC’s daytime R&B dee-jay, John. R. (Richbourg), and Hoss Allen are all white, and so are some of their listeners and customers.

1945

“Guitar Boogie.” Country guitarist Arthur “Guitar Boogie” Smith records the prototypical Rock ‘n’ Roll instrumental. It becomes a Rock ‘n’ Roll hit in 1959 for the Virtues; that same year, the Rock-a-Teens add words to create “Woo Hoo.” Smith’s record ushers in a craze for Hillbilly Boogie records; some of them very close to what became known as Rockabilly.

1946

Duane Allman born. Nashville, Tennessee.

1947

Roy Brown’s “Good Rockin’ Tonight.” Brown returns from Texas  to his home town, New Orleans. At his first New Orleans session, he records the anthemic “Good Rockin’ Tonight.”

1948

Birth of the Long-Playing recordColumbia Records’ engineers introduce the LP, the first significant new sound-carrier since the 78 fifty years earlier.

1948

1948

Billboard magazine coins a neologism “Rhythm & Blues.” Applied to commercialBlues, it replaces previous industry labels, such as Race Music and Sepia Music. It also acknowledges that R&B is distinct from Blues. Louis Jordan, originally from Brinkley, Arkansas, becomes the first R&B star. Bridging JazzBlues, and Pop, he influences Little RichardChuck BerryBill Haley, and many others.

1948

R&B saxophonist Wild Bill Moore releases “We’re Gonna Rock, We’re Gonna Roll.”Alan Freed features it when he starts his R&B show in 1951.

1948

Bill Haley begins recording. He starts as a yodeling cowboy singer.

1949

The 45 RPM single introduced. In response to Columbia’s introduction of the LP,RCA Victor introduces the 45 RPM single. Throughout the 1950s, JazzClassical, and Easy Listening Pop will be experienced on LP; BluesCountry, and Rock ‘n’ Roll on 45 RPM. Unlike 78s, LPs and 45s are more-or-less unbreakable.

1949

Beginning of Black Radio. In Memphis, a Country and Pop station, WDIA, becomes the first station to exclusively program African American music and talk shows.B.B. King signs on as an on-air musician and dee-jay. In response to WDIA’s immediate success, WHBQ programs Dewey Phillips’ Red Hot and Blue show in the evening after WDIA goes off the air. Phillips becomes a pioneering disc jockey, playing Elvis Presley’s first record repeatedly and creating a white teenage audience for R&B.

1949

Fats Domino begins recording in New Orleans. His first single, “The Fat Man,” is based closely on a local drug song, “Junker Blues,” recorded by New Orleans singer Champion Jack Dupree in 1941. Domino’s record becomes an R&B hit.

1949

Bruce Springsteen born. Long Branch, New Jersey.

1950

Memphis Recording Service opens. Studio owner Sam Phillips initially suppliesCountry and Blues masters to other labels before starting Sun.

1950

Arkie Shibley’s “Hot Rod Race.” A proto-rockabilly and pioneering hot rod record, “Hot Rod Race” is a hillbilly talking blues.

1951

Rocket 88Sam Phillips leases Jackie Brenston’s “Rocket 88” (featuring Ike Turneron piano) to Chess Records. Although based on an earlier song, its explosiveness leads some to call it the first Rock ‘n’ Roll record. Bill Haley records the first cover version.

1951

Sixty Minute Man. The Dominoes’ “Sixty Minute Man” eclipses “Rocket 88” as the best-selling R&B record of 1951. The lyrics include the line “I’ll rock ‘em, roll ‘em all night long,” underscoring that Rock ‘n’ Roll is a synonym for sex.

1951

Alan Freed’s Moondog show begins on WLW, Cleveland. Freed begins saying “Let’s Rock ‘n’ Roll with the Rhythm ‘n’ Blues.”

1951

Birth of Top 40KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska becomes the first Top 40 station, playing only hits in rotation.

1951

Little Richard begins recording. He is produced by RCA’s Steve Sholes, who later signs Elvis Presley to RCA.

1952

Johnnie Ray’s “Cry.” Ray, who records for Columbia’s R&B subsidiary OKeh, is a white Pop singer but his theatrically over-the-top delivery and heavier-than-usual backbeat are cloned from R&B. “Cry” reportedly sells two million copies.

1952

Bill Haley covers “Rock the Joint.” A little known R&B record, it attracts more attention when Haley covers it. Those seeing Haley at the time report that he plays at unusually high volume. His music fuses sleek R&B, notably the Treniers andLouis Jordan, with east coast Country music, and Haley begins tailoring for music to teenage hops instead of the Country audiences.

1952

Bandstand” begins as a local show in Philadelphia. Several different formats are tried until WFIL settles on teenagers dancing to records.

1952

First Rock ‘n’ Roll riot. Alan Freed’s Moondog Coronation Ball in Cleveland provokes a teenage riot.

1953

Sun Records launches in Memphis. The label began one year earlier with one release, but went into abeyance while Phillips secured financing and distribution.

1953

Bill Haley cracks the Pop charts with the first Rock ‘n’ Roll hit, “Crazy, Man Crazy.”He changes the name of his group from the Saddlemen to the Comets.

1954

Writing in Cash Box magazine, Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records talks about theBlues renaissance in the South. “Distributors there about two years ago began to report to white high school and college kids were picking upon the Rhythm & Blues records, primarily to dance to. From all accounts, the movement was initiated by youthful hillbilly fans rather than pop bobby-soxers.”

1954

Bill Haley records “Rock around the Clock” and covers “Shake, Rattle and Roll.”“Rock around the Clock” isn’t a hit until it’s featured in the 1955 movie Blackboard Junglebut Haley’s cover of Big Joe Turner’s “Shake, Rattle and Roll” becomes the first Top 10 Rock ‘n’ Roll hit. In 1955, “Rock around the Clock” becomes the first No.1 record of the Rock ‘n’ Roll era.

1954

Alan Freed moves from Cleveland to WINS, New York. At a time when Pop singers are covering Rhythm ‘n’ Blues songs, Freed makes a policy of only playing the original versions. His shows on Cleveland’s WJW are carried on WNJR, Newark, New Jersey before he’s hired by WINS, New York. Shows he promotes at the Newark Armory and then at the St. Nicholas Arena, New York and the Brooklyn Paramount are all-star revues that set the format for Rock ‘n’ Roll package shows.

1954

Sam Phillips signs Elvis Presley to Sun Records. Presley’s first record has one song by Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup (“That’s All Right”) and another by Bill Monroe(“Blue Moon of Kentucky”). By the end of the year, Presley is appearing regularly on the Louisiana Hayride in Shreveport.

1954

England: the beginning of the Skiffle craze. The rhythm section of Chris Barber’sNew Orleans revivalist Jazz band records some “skiffle” songs with banjoistLonnie Donegan singing lead. “Skiffle” was a 1920s term for a rent party, but the revivalists, who slavishly re-create early New Orleans Jazz, latch onto “skiffle” as shorthand for Folk and Blues songs sung with home-made or low-cost instruments, like washboards and kazoos. The first recorded Skiffle songs in England include Huddie Ledbetter’s “Rock Island Line,” later a hit in England and the United States.

1955

Pat Boone and Pop cover versions. Randy Wood at Dot Records in Gallatin, Tennessee signs a local high school student, Pat Boone.

1955

Fats Domino records “Ain’t That a Shame” aka “Ain’t It a Shame” in New Orleans.His record is played on some Pop stations, but Pat Boone covers him and scores the bigger pop hit.

1955

Little Richard records “Tutti Frutti” in New Orleans. Again, Pat Boone covers the song and scores the Pop hit.

1955

Chuck Berry records “Maybellene” for Chess Records in Chicago. His record eclipses the cover versions to become a Pop hit. The guitar establishes itself as the lead instrument of “Rock ‘n’ Roll.”

1955

Elvis Presley creates RockabillyHis Sun records, coupling a Blues song with aCountry song, create a new style, later dubbed Rockabilly. Heard every week on the Louisiana Hayridehis records sell well in the South and Southwest, prompting many younger Country singers, including Buddy HollyBuck Owens,George Jones, and Conway Twitty, to copy his style.

1955

Sam Phillips sells Elvis Presley’s contract to RCA Victor for $35,000. Elvis has very little presence outside the South and Southwest, and he is signed to RCA’s Country division. Meanwhile, Phillips has just signed Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins.

1955

In its year-end review of music Encyclopedia Britannica is supposed to have described the advent of Rock ‘n’ Roll as “jungle music.”

1956

Elvis Presley becomes a sensation. With RCA’s national promotion, he sells unprecedented quantities of records, including five No.1 hits in 1956. He also stars in a movie, and makes appearances on CBS-TV’s Stage Show, The Steve Allen ShowThe Milton Berle Showand The Ed Sullivan ShowIt is the year that rock ‘n’ roll explodes into the national consciousness, with Presley as a lightning rod for adulation and criticism.

1956

Blue Suede ShoesCarl Perkins scores an era-defining hit on Sun with “Blue Suede Shoes,” and appears to be running a close second behind Presley for a month or two, but can never find the elusive follow-up. His music influences the Beatles, who record three of his songs.

1956

Finding the “Next Elvis.” Elvis Presley and Carl Perkins are initially perceived asCountry artists because they started on the Country circuit. Record labels instruct their Nashville divisions to find the “next Presley.” Buddy HollyJohnny Burnette,Conway TwittyGene Vincent, and many others are brought to Nashville to recordRockabilly or, as Billboard magazine dubs it, “trick warbling.” None, except Vincent, is successful at the time, although Johnny Burnette’s recordings with the Rock ‘n’ Roll Trio are later viewed as the apogee of Rockabilly, and introduce distorted fuzz-tone guitar. Roy Orbison, another Country singer who’d gone Rockabilly, signs with Sun and scores his first hit, “Ooby Dooby.”

1956

RockabillyCoined by music industry trade papers, the first known use is in a press release for Gene Vincent’s “Be Bop a Lula.” A few weeks later, it’s in aBillboard review of Ruckus Tyler’s “Rock Town Rock.” The word doesn’t catch on until the late 1960s when European record dealers begin using “Rockabilly” to describe records modeled on Presley’s Sun recordings.

1956

“All market smash.” For the first time, five singles appear in both Billboard’s R&B and Pop Top 10. They are: “Heartbreak Hotel,” “Blue Suede Shoes,” Frankie Lymon’s “Why Do Fools Fall in Love,” Little Richard’s “Long Tall Sally,” and thePlatters’ “Magic Touch.” Additionally, “Blue Suede Shoes” and “Heartbreak Hotel” are in the Country chart.

1956

England: the Skiffle craze hits its shortlived peak. Lonnie Donegan’s success with “Rock Island Line” and several more reinvented American Blues and Folk songs sparks a shortlived craze for Skiffle bands. Among those who join Skiffle bands are Van MorrisonGeorge HarrisonJohn LennonPaul McCartneyRingo Starr,Jimmy Page, members of the Whothe Kinksthe Animals, and many others. At one point, there are an estimated thirty thousand Skiffle bands in England, but Skiffle is soon overtaken by Rock ‘n’ Roll.

1957

Jerry Lee Lewis arrives. Sun Records’ newest star, Jerry Lee Lewis, makes an epochal appearance on The Steve Allen Show singing “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On.”

1957

The birth of the Nashville Sound. Country Music changes in response to Rock ‘n’ Roll. Hard country instruments, such as the steel guitarmandolinfiddle, andbanjo are de-emphasized in favor of the electric guitar, piano, and chorus. Singers who can sing without regionalism are preferred to those with “hillbilly” intonation. The top country songs of 1957 include Marty Robbins’ “A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation),” Sonny James’ “Young Love,” and Jim Reeves’ “Four Walls.” The Everly Brothers become the first Rock ‘n’ Roll act produced and managed out of Nashville.

1957

Bill Haley in Europe. Haley brings Rock ‘n’ Roll to Europe, and remains a star there. Back home, his records have disappeared from the upper reaches of Billboard’sHot 100 singles chart.

1957

Little Richard renounces Rock ‘n’ Roll. On a tour of Australia, Richard throws his jewelry into Sydney Harbor and plans to enter the seminary after he returns to the United States.

1957

Bandstand goes coast-to-cast. Looking for a 3:30PM show, ABC-TV picks upBandstand from WFIL in Philadelphia, bringing the show and its new host, Dick Clark, to the network and changing the title to American BandstandBy 1959, it has a national audience of 90 million. It runs until 1989.

1958

Stereo is standardized after years of experimentation. From this point, nearly all major label recordings are made in stereo.

1958

Gold records. The Recording industry Association of America begins auditing sales, issuing Gold Records when sales top one million. The first certified Gold Record is Elvis Presley’s “Hard Headed Woman.”

1958

Jerry Lee Lewis’s career implodes. On a tour of England, Jerry Lee is accompanied by his thirteen year-old cousin, who is revealed to be his third wife.

1958

Elvis Presley inducted into the Army. He serves a two-year hitch.

1958

Birth of the Power ChordLink Wray’s “Rumble” and Eddie Cochran’s“Summertime Blues” bring the power chord to Rock ‘n’ Roll.

1958

Rock ‘n’ Roll speaks the language of the teenager. Songs like “Summertime Blues” and Chuck Berry’s “Sweet Little Sixteen” speak directly to the teenage audience.

1959

The Day the Music DiedBuddy HollyRitchie Valens, and the Big Bopper die in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa.

1959

Payola scandal. Paying for airplay passed more or less unnoticed when it was prevalent in R&B radio in the early 1950s, but the major labels pressure Congressbecause the R&B indies are using the same tactics to promote Rock ‘n’ Roll. The result in Alan Freed’s dismissal from his television and radio shows in New York, but Dick Clark emerges unscathed, although he owns record labels and promotes his own product on Bandstand.

1959

Market Share: Rock ‘n’ Roll’s share of the recorded music market is estimated at 42.7%.

1959

Tamla-MotownBerry Gordy launches the Tamla and Motown labels in Detroit.

1960

Elvis Presley returns to Memphis after two years in the Army. His singles are more varied (mid-tempo Rock songs like “Make Me Know It,” a reimagined Neapolitanballad, “O Sole Mio” (“It’s Now or Never”), and a 1920s Pop song, “Are You Lonesome Tonight.”) Later in the year, he records a Southern Gospel LP, His Hand in Mine.

1960

Roy Orbison reinvents the Pop song. After a brief career as a Rockabilly singer onSun, Orbison employs his dramatic range and newfound flair for writing quasi-operatic ballads into a new career. His records such as “Only the Lonely,” “In Dreams,” and “It’s Over” influence Bruce Springsteen and many others.

1960

The Girl Group era. The Shirelles’ “Will You Love Me Tomorrow?” inaugurates the Girl Group era in Sixties pop. The Ronettesthe Crystalsthe Shangri-Lasthe Marvelettesthe Chiffons, and many others follow.

1960

The dance craze. Inspired the moves of mostly African American dancers onBandstandthere are new dances almost weekly. The most successful is theTwist, popularized by Chubby Checker on Dick Clark’s Saturday night television show and then on Bandstand.

1960

Walk Don’t Run. The Ventures’ recording of a Jazz guitar tune, “Walk Don’t Run,” inaugurates Surf guitar.

1961

The Beatles make their first records. They back singer Tony Sheridan on recordings made in Germany.

1961

The Beach Boys make their first record. Surfin’” on Candix Records sells sufficiently well for Capitol to sign the group. Their first Capitol single, “Surfin’ Safari,” is a Top 20 hit in 1962.

1961

Bob Dylan makes his first LP. It sells fewer than five thousand copies and mostly comprises non-originals.

1962

The Rolling Stones make their first appearance. As a Chicago-style Blues band, they appear at London’s Marquee Club, and are signed to Decca Records(UK)/London (US) in 1963. Their first British single is a cover of Chuck Berry’s“Come On.”

1962

The Beatles’ first Parlophone single charts in England.

1962

Tamla Motown breakthrough. The label scores Top 10 Pop hits with the Contoursand Mary WellsThe Miracles charted “Shop Around” in 1960 and continue to score hits.

1962

Wolfman Jack begins broadcasting on XERF. After a chill descends on radio following the payola investigations, stations located just south of American-Mexican border broadcast with megawattage into the United States and bring back some of the freewheeling spirit of early R&B/Rock ‘n’ Roll radio.

1963

Northwest garage rock. With an amateur-punk-rockabilly style, groups like the Wailers and the Kingsmen emerge from Portland-Seattle. The Kingsmen score with a garage version of an R&B-calypso song, “Louie, Louie,” and the Wailers also score with “Tall Cool One.” Playing old R&B together with self-composed Rock songs, they’re ahead of the British Invasion.

1963

Beatlemania in EnglandThe group scores one No.2 and two No.1 hits onParlophone, but label’s American affiliate, Capitol, refuses to release the singles and they’re picked up by Vee-Jay and Swan Records without success.

1963

Surf music explodes. The Beach Boys, who chart seven songs, and Jan & Dean, who chart four, lead the way. Surf guitar records by the Ventures and others also sell well.

1963

Peter, Paul & Mary score with two Bob Dylan songs. Blowin’ in the Wind” and “Don’t Think Twice, It’s Alright” help to publicize Dylan’s second LP.

1964

BeatlemaniaPicked up by Capitol, thirty of their songs enter the Billboard Pop chart, including the old Vee-Jay and Swan singles, and six of them reach No.1. In March, Billboard announces that sales of Beatles records make up 60 percent of all singles sold.

1964

British Invasion second wavePop bands like Freddie & the Dreamers and Billy J. Kramer & the Dakotas are supplanted by Blues and R&B-based bands like theRolling Stonesthe Animals, and the Kinks.

1964

1964

TAMI—the First Rock Concert Movie. Steve Binder, who later directs Elvis Presley’s comeback television special, films a concert at the Santa Monica Coliseum with the Beach BoysChuck BerryJames BrownGerry & the PacemakersLesley GoreJan & DeanBilly J. KramerSmokey Robinson and the Miracles, the Rolling Stones, and the Supremes.

1965

Folk RockProtest and social commentary songs, largely the preserve of underground Folk singers, enter the charts as Folk-RockThe Byrds issue “Hey Mr. Tambourine Man” and Bob Dylan goes electric at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival.Barry McGuire tops the charts with “Eve of Destruction.”

1965

The Beatles meet ElvisTheir only meeting is at Presley’s Bel-Air mansion.

1965

Alan Freed dies. Although his radio career didn’t end with the payolainvestigations, he worked on ever smaller stations and dies an alcoholic aged 43.

1965

Blues RockAs the African American audience for the Blues declines, white Rockmusicians begin using Blues as the basis of a new style that draws heavily onChicago Blues, but with increasingly long and harmonically complex solos.Canned Heat, the Paul Butterfield Blues BandJohn Mayall’s Bluesbreakers, theYardbirds, and the Pretty Things, are joined by Fleetwood MacSavoy Brown,CreamAl KooperJohnny Winter, and many others. Jimi Hendrix, one of the few African Americans to root his style in Blues, begins his solo career in London in 1966 with a Folk song, “Hey Joe.”

1966

The Rock era. Rock ‘n’ Roll’s simplicity gives way to music of increasing complexity, in part because studio technology permits more overdubs with the advent of half-inch eight track tape (earlier recording tape held between one and four tracks). The Beatles’ Rubber Soul and the Beach Boys’ Pet Sounds are among the first LPs to take advantage of layered recording and studio technology.

1967

Psychedelic Rock. The Byrds’ “Eight Miles High” and Count Five’s “Psychotic Reaction” were hits in 1966, but explicit drug references go mainstream with the dawn of the San Francisco scene. The Human Be-In is held at Golden Gate Park in January 1967, and features many Bay Area bands, including the Grateful Dead.

1967

Monterey Pop FestivalThe first large scale outdoor rock music festival held in June. Stars include The WhoSimon & GarfunkelEric Burdon & The AnimalsThe ByrdsJefferson AirplaneBig Brother and The Holding Company with Janis Joplinand Jimi Hendrix.

1967

Rock music becomes the voice of the counter-cultureThe Summer of ’67 is dubbed the Summer of Love and Rock music is its soundtrack. Some groups from the mid-1960s, including The Beatles, the Beach Boys, and The Rolling Stones, adapt to the volatile, changing time; others do not and are replaced by groups likeThe Strawberry Alarm ClockThe SeedsThe DoorsVanilla Fudge, etc.

1967

Rolling Stone magazine launches. Together with Creem (1969), Rolling Stone(named for the group and thus the Muddy Waters song) brings long-form journalism to Rock music, mixing music coverage with politics. The magazine, says founder Jann Wenner, “is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces.”

1967

The Wild AngelsThe first Rockabilly Revival band forms in London. Members of the Beatles and The Rolling Stones attend their gigs, and they back Gene Vincenton his tours of England.

1968

In-A-Gadda-Da-VidaThe LP by Iron Butterfly becomes the first to have one complete side consumed with just one song.

1968

Country RockCalled “Longhair Country” at first, Country Rock fuses the lyrical concepts of Rock music with traditional Country instrumentation and song structure. The first Country Rock LPs are the International Submarine Band’s Safe at Home and The Byrds’ Sweetheart of the Rodeoboth of them featuring Gram Parsons. In Nashville, John Hartford’s “Gentle on My Mind” begins to change the way Country songs are written.

1968

The BandIn a parallel reaction against the self-absorption and self-indulgence ofRock music, Bob Dylan’s former backing group call themselves The Band and record back-to-basics LPs rooted in CountrySoul, and vintage Rock ‘n’ Roll.Creedence Clearwater Revival find greater commercial success with the same approach.

1968

ElvisAfter spending the years since his return from the Army largely consumed with making forgettable movies, Elvis stars in a television special, Elvis, dubbed the Comeback Special. His single, “In the Ghetto,” becomes his first Top 3 hit since 1963.

1968

HairThe first Rock musical opens on Broadway. Several songs from the show become hits, including “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine in,” “Hair,” “Easy to Be Hard,” and “Good Morning Starshine.”

1969

The Allman Brothers’ first LP: a landmark in Southern Rock. After recording as theAllman Joys and Hour Glass in Nashville and Los Angeles, Duane Allman works as a session musician in Muscle Shoals before assembling a new band in Florida with his brother, Gregg. They’re signed to Capricorn Records in Macon, Georgia, and the label soon signs many first-generation Southern Rock acts, including Wet Willie (from Mobile, Alabama) and The Marshall Tucker Band (from Spartanburg, South Carolina).

1969

Led Zeppelin’s first LP, a landmark in Hard RockGuitar-based, riff-driven, often distorted and overpoweringly loud, Hard Rock prefigures Heavy Metal music.Deep PurpleVanilla FudgeIron ButterflyBlack Sabbath, and others release landmark LPs between 1968 and 1970. The sound is taken up by The Rolling Stones and The WhoAlso in 1969, MC5 release Kick out the Jams and The Stooges release a self-titled LP; both are prototypical Punk Rock albums.

1969

WoodstockThe concert that symbolizes the era is held in upstate New York and features three days of music. Artists performing include SantanaCanned Heat,Grateful DeadCreedence Clearwater RevivalJanis JoplinSly & the Family Stone,The WhoJefferson AirplaneJoe CockerThe BandJohnny WinterBlood Sweat & TearsCrosby, Stills & Nash, and Jimi Hendrix.

1969

Elvis Presley records in Memphis for the first time since leaving Sun. He goes to American Studio and records his comeback hit, “Suspicious Minds” and the From Elvis in Memphis LP. He also returns to live performing for the first time since 1961.

1969

Sam Phillips sells Sun Records to Shelby Singleton in Nashville. Singleton immediately issues LPs and singles by Johnny Cash, whose career is spectacularly reborn following his Folsom Prison album, and Jerry Lee Lewis, who has reinvented himself as a Country star.

1969

First Rock ‘n’ Roll Revival Show.  Promoter Richard Nader presents the first Rock ‘n’ Roll Revival show at Madison Square Garden. It features Chuck BerryThe Five SatinsBill HaleyThe Platters, and others. Its overwhelming success shows that the generation who’d grown up on Rock ‘n’ Roll doesn’t like contemporary Rock.

1970

The Beatles break up. As do Folk-Rock duo Simon & Garfunkel.

1970

Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix die of drug overdoses.

1971

Country Rock-Southern Rock. In Nashville, Barefoot Jerry and Area Code 615become pioneering Southern Rock bands, both led by local session musicians. Neither is successful commercially. In Muscle ShoalsLynyrd Skynyrd record their first sessions, although the songs aren’t immediately issued.

1971

California Country RockThe EaglesLinda Ronstadt assembles a touring band that comprises the group who will become The Eagles, and find a way to successfully fuse Country and Rock.

1971

Duane Allman, aged 24, killed in a motorcycle accident. Gene Vincent, aged 38, dies of a bleeding ulcer.

1972

Lynyrd SkynyrdAl Kooper, formerly of Blood Sweat & Tears, discovers the band at Funnochio’s in Atlanta and signs them to his Sounds of the South Records.

1973

First Lynyrd Skynyrd LP released. It features the soon-to-be classic “Free Bird.” Another Southern Rock band, ZZ Top, releases its breakthrough album, Tres Hombresfeaturing “La Grange.”

1973

Outlaw CountryBringing Rock instrumentation, Rock dress, attitude and often drugs to Country music, Waylon JenningsDavid Allan CoeSteve YoungWillie Nelson and others create the Outlaw movement. The music is made outside the Nashville studio system, using the artists’ bands instead of session musicians. Strings are very rarely heard. The Outlaws find a market among Rock fans. A 1976 compilation, Wanted—The Outlawsbecomes the first Country LP to sell one million copies.

1974

Rock ‘n’ Roll revival. The revival of interest in Fifties rock gathers momentum with more concerts and the success of the movie American Graffiti and the television show Happy DaysBill Haley’s “Rock around the Clock” re-enters the chart after it becomes the original theme for Happy DaysIt peaks at No.39. In 1975, John Lennon releases an oldies collection, Rock ‘n’ Roll.

1974

Volunteer JamCharlie Daniels starts an annual Southern Rock festival, Volunteer Jam. The first is held in Nashville’s War Memorial Auditorium.

1974

Lynyrd Skynyrd’s second LP. It features the classic “Sweet Home Alabama.”

1975

Hank Williams, Jr. & FriendsHank Williams’ son, Hank, Jr., declares his artistic freedom from Country music with an album recorded in Muscle Shoals, Alabamain conjunction with Toy Caldwell of The Marshall Tucker Band and surviving members of the Allman Brothers. He is the first Country artist to embrace Southern Rock.

1977

Elvis Presley dies in Memphis, aged 42.

1995

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opens in Cleveland. Many consider that it should have opened in Memphis, but the city of Cleveland underwrote the building with $65 million. The Hall’s original list of 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll is predominated by songs, artists, and styles that originated in the Triangle.